Les publications de l’UMR
Ultracentrifugated compact polyelectrolyte complexes (uCoPECs) represent a new class of materials that are obtained by ultracentrifugation of solutions of polyanion/polycation complexes in the presence of salt. In the present study, two polysaccharides, chitosan and alginate, were used to form such complexes, thus providing a solid material uniquely composed of polysaccharides. The conditions for obtaining the uCoPEC material were optimized: the optimal salt concentration and polysaccharide concentrations were assessed, and the ultracentrifugation speed proved to be a key parameter to obtain compact and homogeneous materials. The Young's modulus, E, of the material was of the order of 12 MPa, which is the highest E value measured for a uCoPEC. indicated by X-ray diffraction. Most strikingly, this material proves to be totally cell- and bacteria-resistant. Immunological tests show that this uCoPEC does not induce any proinflammatory of biocompatible and antifouling biomaterials composed only The material contained nanometer-sized crystals of chitosan proves to be totally cell- and bacteria-resistant. Immunological tests response. This makes it a suitable candidate for the development of polysaccharides.
Introduction Our understanding of the involvement of the immune system in cancer control has increased over recent years. However, the development of cancer vaccines intended to reverse tumor-induced immune tolerance remains slow as most current vaccine candidates exhibit limited clinical efficacy. The skin is particularly rich with multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) that are involved to varying degrees in the induction of robust immune responses. Transcutaneous administration of cancer vaccines may therefore harness the immune potential of these DCs, however, this approach is hampered by the impermeability of the stratum corneum. Innovative vaccine formulations including various nanoparticles, such as liposomes, are therefore needed to properly deliver cancer vaccine components to skin DCs. Areas covered The recent insights into skin DC subsets and their functional specialization, the potential of nanoparticle-based vaccines in transcutaneous cancer vaccination and, finally, the most relevant clinical trial advances in liposomal and in cutaneous cancer vaccines will be discussed. Expert commentary To define the optimal conditions for mounting protective skin DC-induced anti-tumor immune responses, investigation of the cellular and molecular interplay that controls tumor progression should be pursued in parallel with clinical development. The resulting knowledge will then be translated into improved cancer vaccines that better target the most appropriate immune players.
TNF receptor superfamily members (TNFRSF) such as CD40, Fas and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAILR2) participate to the adaptive immune response by eliciting survival, proliferation, differentiation and/or cell death signals. The balance between these signals determines the fate of the immune response. It was previously reported that these receptors are able to self-assemble in the absence of ligand through their extracellular regions. However, the role of this oligomerization is not well understood, and none of the proposed hypotheses take into account potential hetero-association of receptors. Using CD40 as bait in a flow cytometry Forster resonance energy transfer assay, TNFRSF members with known functions in B cells were probed for interactions. Both Fas and TRAILR2 associated with CD40. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction of CD40 with Fas at the endogenous levels in a BJAB B-cell lymphoma cell line deficient for TRAILR2. TRAILR2-expressing BJAB cells displayed a robust CD40-TRAILR2 interaction at the expense of the CD40-Fas interaction. The same results were obtained by proximity ligation assay, using TRAILR2-positive and -negative BJAB cells and primary human B cells. Expression of the extracellular domains of Fas or TRAILR2 with a glycolipid membrane anchor specifically reduced the intrinsic signalling pathway of CD40 in 293T cells. Conversely, BJAB cells lacking endogenous Fas or TRAILR2 showed an increased NF-kappaB response to CD40L. Finally, upregulation of TRAILR2 in primary human B cells correlated with reduced NF-kappaB activation and reduced proliferation in response to CD40L. Altogether, these data reveal that selective interactions between different TNFRSF members may modulate ligand-induced responses upstream signalling events.
Click chemistry represents a new bioconjugation strategy that can be used to conveniently attach various ligands to the surface of preformed liposomes. This efficient and chemoselective reaction involves a Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition which can be performed under mild experimental conditions in aqueous media. Here we describe the application of a model click reaction to the conjugation, in a single step, of unprotected alpha-1-thiomannosyl ligands, functionalized with an azide group, to liposomes containing a terminal alkyne-functionalized lipid anchor. Excellent coupling yields have been obtained in the presence of bathophenanthroline disulfonate, a water soluble copper-ion chelator, acting as a catalyst. No vesicle leakage is triggered by this conjugation reaction and the coupled mannose ligands are exposed at the surface of the liposomes. The major limitation of Cu(I)-catalyzed click reactions is that this conjugation is restricted to liposomes made of saturated (phospho)lipids. To circumvent that constraint, an example of alternative copper-free azide-alkyne click reaction has been developed. Molecular tools and results are presented here.
The rise of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms constitutes an increasingly serious threat to global public health. As a consequence, the efficacy of conventional antimicrobials is rapidly declining, threatening the ability of healthcare professionals to cure common infections. Over the last two decades host defense peptides have been identified as an attractive source of new antimicrobials. In the present study, we characterized the antibacterial and mechanistic properties of D-Cateslytin (D-Ctl), a new epipeptide derived from L-Cateslytin, where all L-amino acids were replaced by D-amino acids. We demonstrated that D-Ctl emerges as a potent, safe and robust peptide antimicrobial with undetectable susceptibility to resistance. Using Escherichia coli as a model, we reveal that D-Ctl targets the bacterial cell wall leading to the permeabilization of the membrane and the death of the bacteria. Overall, D-Ctl offers many assets that make it an attractive candidate for the biopharmaceutical development of new antimicrobials either as a single therapy or as a combination therapy as D-Ctl also has the remarkable property to potentiate several antimicrobials of reference such as cefotaxime, amoxicillin and methicillin.
Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are commonly used for studies related to cell fate and tissue engineering. Here we present a new covalent layer-by-layer build-up process leading to PEG coatings of nanometer size called "nanogel films". Compared to macroscopic hydrogels, such nanogels should provide a fine control over the structure and the thickness of the coating. Alternated deposition of bifunctional and tetra functional PEG molecules reacting through thiol/maleimide click chemistry is evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance. We first study parameters influencing the build-up process of such coatings and demonstrate the importance of (i) the nature of the first deposited layer, (ii) the PEG concentrations and (iii) the length of the PEG chains that appears to be the most significant parameter influencing film growth. The build-up process can be extended to a large variety of substrates like SiO2 or polymers by using an appropriate anchoring layer. Covalent functionalization of these nanogel films by proteins or enzymes is suited by modifying the biomolecules with thiol or maleimide groups and immobilizing them during the build-up process. Activity of the embedded enzymes can be maintained. Moreover ligands like biotin can be incorporated into the film and recognition by streptavidin can be modulated by playing with the number of PEG layers covering biotin. Compared to well-known PEG hydrogels, these new coatings are promising as they allow to (i) build thin nanometric coatings, (ii) finely control the amount of deposited PEG and (iii) organize the position of the embedded biomolecules inside the film layers.
The oxidation of dopamine and of other catecholamines leads to the formation of conformal films on the surface of all known materials and to the formation of a precipitate in solution. In some cases, it has been shown that the addition of additives in the dopamine solution, like certain surfactants or polymers, polyelectrolytes, and certain proteins, allows to get polydopamine nanoparticles of controlled size and the concomitant decrease, in an additive/dopamine dependent manner, in film formation on the surface of the reaction beaker. However, the mechanism behind this controlled oxidation and self-assembly of catecholamines is not known. In this article, it is shown that a specific diad of amino acids in proteins, namely KE, allows for specific control in the oxidation-self-assembly of dopamine to obtain polydopamine@protein core-shell nanoparticles which are biocompatible. The interactions between dopamine and the adjacent KE amino acids potentially responsible for the size control of polydopamine aggregates was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The obtained core-shell nanoparticles display the biological activity of the protein used to control the self-assembly of PDA. The photon to heat conversion ability of PDA is conserved in the PDA@protein particles.
Functionalized gold nanoparticles receive much attention for biomedical applications thanks to their improved in vivo circulation time and colloidal stability. This work aimed at developing a simple and efficient synthetic route for synthesizing nanoparticles coated with linear polyethyleneimine for use as non-toxic platforms in non-viral gene delivery. We show that the reproducible one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilized with a biocompatible linear PEI yields nanodelivery devices offering a low toxicity and very good transfection efficiency.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) appears as an interesting candidate for targeted cancer therapy as it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL elicits apoptosis through agonist death receptor TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 engagement. Nevertheless, recombinant soluble TRAIL and monoclonal antibodies against these receptors demonstrated insufficient efficacy in clinical trials. This may be explained by the cell-type dependency of the apoptotic response, itself influenced by the effect on ligand binding mode of factors such as the level of receptor oligomerization or glycosylation. To investigate the relation between binding mode and signaling, we used previously described synthetic divalent and monovalent peptides specific for TRAIL-R2. We measured their pro-apoptotic activity on three cancer cell lines sensitive to rhTRAIL induced-apoptosis and monitored their cell-surface binding kinetics. The two divalent peptides bound with strong affinity to TRAIL-R2 expressed on B lymphoma BJAB cells and induced a high degree of apoptosis. By contrast, the same peptides bound weakly to TRAIL-R2 expressed at the surface of the human colon cancer HCT116 or T lymphoma Jurkat cell lines and did not induce their apoptosis. Cross-linking experiments suggest that these differences could be afforded by variations in the TRAIL-R2 oligomerization state at cell surface before ligand addition. Moreover divalent peptides showed a different efficiency in BJAB apoptosis induction, and kinetic distribution analysis of the BJAB binding curves suggested subtle differences in binding mechanisms. Thus our data support a relation between the cell-surface binding mode of the peptides and their pro-apoptotic activity. In this case the precise characterization of ligand binding to the surface of living cells would be predictive of the therapeutic potential of TRAIL-R2 synthetic ligands prior to clinical trials.
For biological and medical applications, a definable nanomaterial and knowledge on its fate after administration are highly recommended if not mandatory. Here, we synthesized a water-soluble gold nanocluster by sodium borohydride reduction of chloroauric acid in the presence of 5,5′-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The resulting gold nanocluster displayed the physical characteristics of a cluster containing an inner core of about 100 gold atoms that was surrounded by an organic monolayer made of about 30 thioaminobenzoic acids (TAB) and 14 anionic thionitrobenzoic acids (TNB). The mixed TAB-,TNB-protected gold nanocluster reacted well in water with thiolated peptides containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES) mainly by exchange of the TNB, providing gold nanoclusters equipped with 8–9 intracellular active peptides and a remaining ligand coverage consisting mostly of the zwitterion TAB. The behavior of these peptide–gold nanoclusters inside the cytosol and nucleus of cells was then assayed using an electroporation procedure allowing transient plasma membrane permeability. Light and electron microscopy observations demonstrated a consistent inflow and diffusion of the gold nanoclusters into the cytosol. Inside the living cells, the distribution of the gold nanoparticles was specifically driven by the appended signal peptides in a manner similar to the distribution of NLS and NES-bearing proteins, demonstrating diffusion ability, stability, and usage of these definable ligand-substituted gold nanoclusters for intracellular applications.